This volume brings together a number of studies on decentralization in Ethiopia. The decentralization drive in the country has proceeded intermittently, in several phases, since 1991 when the present government came to power. The latest phase, which devolves power and responsibility to the district level, was launched in 2001. The volume includes a long review of the available documentation on the subject as well as several papers based on rapid assessments in a number of districts where the decentralization program has been undertaken. The purpose is to identify knowledge gaps, stimulate debate and highlight areas for further research.